Materiais construtivos e sua biodeterioração em fortificações da Amazônia

By de author: "The Amazon fortifications recognized as historical monuments of Brazilian cultural heritage testifies the territorial limits consolidation of country. These monuments were severely altered by tropical climatic conditions to which they were and are exposed. Considering these structures, this research aims to recognize the constructive materials of Portuguese fortifications of the Amazon, observing possible origins and their susceptibility to the prevailing tropical weathering, mainly the biochemical.

For this purpose, three representative monuments were selected: the São José de Macapá Fortress (Amapá) (FSJM), the Fort of Castelo do Santo Cristo do Presépio of Belém (Pará) (FCPB) and the Real Fort Príncipe da Beira (RFPB) and was added the ruins of Fortress of N. Sra. da Conceição or Bragança (FCB) in Costa Marques (Rondônia), being the first, the main object of analysis.

Methods included were documentary and bibliographical research on historical and typological fortifications aspects, materials and characterization techniques; field survey with production of FSJM architectural cartography; digital photographic and infrared thermal imaging (IRT), walls surface temperature; FSJM and FCPB micro-organisms and vegetation collection; collection of construction materials; laboratory analysis, data treatment and interpretation. The materials studied were rocks, mortars, bricks and biologicals for which anal were carried out according to the samples specificities. The techniques of optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for mineralogical characterization were used; portable X-ray fluorescence (FRX), inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICP-OES), spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with dispersive energy system (SEM/EDS) for chemical analyzes; in addition to laser granulometry, compressive resistance tests, water absorption, porosity, apparent density in water and mercury, as well as specific procedures for microorganisms and plant specimens identification.

The results and discussions are organized into four papers. The first is about the FSJM with analysis of implantation site, rocks characterization and possible sources of raw material as well its application in the monument. Rocks used were ferruginized sandstones (FSS), ferroaluminous crusts (FLC) and iron stones (IST) predominantly composed of goethite, hematite, quartz and kaolinite. Due to their compositional, textural and physical characteristics, it was possible to correlate their uses and functions in the fortification, as well as their origins from implantation site and Pedreira river and its surroundings.

The second article deals with the fortress biodeterioration correlating it to the mineralogical nature, chemical and potential nutrition of constructive materials. The sites most susceptible to biodeterioration associated with architectural aspects and insolation were mapped. The mycological study resulted in 121 fungal colonies isolation, especially the Penicilium, Aspergillus, Curvularia, and Acremonium taxa. From the flora were identified 37 species distributed in 23 families, classified according to their biodeterioration potential in high, medium and low impact and correlated the sites and materials by their bioreceptivity.

The third article presents FSJM, FCPB, RFPB and FCB bricks, classified as historical (HCB) and recomposition (RCB) ceramic bricks. In FSJM, the use of bricks is more comprehensive as in application and quantity. Bricks based on quartz and hematite, probably metacaulinite, sometimes contain mullite and muscovite, suggesting the use next to raw material for their manufacture, reinforced by the historical documentation and evidence surrounding the FSJM and RFPB. It was possible to identify different bricks characteristics and their application in fortifications.

The fourth paper describes the RFPB and the external structures composed of the kiln, gunpowder barn, “Labyrinth” and the FCB ruins, in correlation to geology and constructive materials (rocks, bricks, mortars) from the mesoscopic observations, associated to the historical documents that demonstrate the conservation of this historic site.

This research in its set of approaches demonstrated the use and functional correlation of rocks from the Amazonian geological context and the fortifications construction, being the ferruginized sandstones and lateritic crusts the most used, however there are external contributions especially of rocks possibly coming from Europe, in particular in the FCPB. Ceramic bricks and mortars are important materials whose production relied on local raw materials. Production logistics could be observed with the aid of historical documentation associated with physical, chemical and mineralogical analyses. About the biodeterioration aspects, the mortars are most favorable substrate to plants nutrition, however the materials that present rough surfaces, typical from lateritic crusts or bricks intemperate faces are also bioreceptives by succession. Architectural typology aspects associated to solar orientation and exposure to the great mass of river water and winds, especially in FSJM and FCPB, also play an important role in the susceptibility to biological colonization.

The information set research meets the objectives assisting management, optimize resources in the preventive maintenance and subsidize more comprehensive restoration processes of the monuments".

  • Thesis
  • Roseane da Conceição Costa Norat
  • Instituto de Geociências/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia e Geoquímica da UFPA
  • 2017
  • Belém
  • Portuguese
  • Tese de Doutoramento aprovada em 29/03/2017. Orientador: Marcondes Lima da Costa. Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Ilustrado, colorido, 219 p.
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Updated at 15/08/2017 by the tutor Projeto Fortalezas Multimídia (Daniela Marangoni Costa).

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